This assignment is based on a Nifty Assignment introduced by Kevin Wayne (Princeton University) and refined by Stuart Reges (University of Washington).
When a piano wire is struck, the wire vibrates and creates sound. The vibration can be measured by sampling the displacement of the wire at equally spaced points. These displacement measurements can be stored digitally, say in a list or queue structure, then used to recreate the sound wave over a speaker.
For this assignment, you will store the displacement values for a piano wire in a queue structure. When at rest, the wire can contain energy at any frequency. This is modeled by assigning the queue to contain random real numbers between -1/2 and +1/2. After the wire is struck, it vibrates causing a displacement that spreads wave-like over time. The Karplus-Strong algorithm simulates this vibration using a fairly simple update process: it repeatedly deletes the first sample from the queue and adds to the end of the queue the average of the first two samples, scaled by an energy decay factor of 0.996.
This simple algorithm provides an effective model of the wire vibration due to two features: the queue feedback mechanism and the averaging operation.
For the first part of this assignment, you are to implement a class that models a single piano wire. Your
PianoWire class should provide the following methods:
public PianoWire(int rate, double frequency)
public void strike()
public double sample()
You should test your class thoroughly by creating an object with a short queue and displaying the results of each update. Once you are convinced that the class is behaving as desired, you may integrate it with the following classes:
Piano class and thus supported by
InteractivePiano is shown here:
Once you have your interactive piano working correctly, modify the
Piano class so that it is more general-purpose. Instead of hard-coding the character mapping, add a second constructor that takes a string of characters as input. When called, this new constructor should map the characters in its input String to the piano keys (wires). For example, the statement
Piano p = new Piano("12345678"); would create a piano with only 8 wires, labeled by the digits and ascending in frequency. There should still be a default constructor that results in the provided "q2we4r5..." mapping.
You should test your general-purpose class by constructing and playing several
Piano objects with different keyboard mappings.
Finally, you are to implement an alternative interface for playing music with a piano. The
PlayerPiano class should contain a main method that reads characters from a file and converts those characters to sounds (using a
Piano object). The means of obtaining the file name is up to you - you may implement a GUI or just use a text prompt.
The first line of a music file will contain a series of characters that defines the character mapping assumed for that file. Your code will need to construct a
Piano object using that mapping. The rest of the file will contain strings, one per line, that are to be played in sequence. For example, if a line contained the single character "e", then the wire corresponding to 'e' for that particular piano should be played. If a line contained the sequence "etu", then three wires (corresponding to the characters 'e', 't', and 'u') should be struck simultaneously. Each line of music should be played for a set period (equal to half the sampling rate) before moving on to the next line.
For example, the file chopsticks.txt contains one possible encoding of Chopsticks.