PROBLEM 4: The Seven Percent Solution

Uniform Resource Identifiers (or URIs) are strings like,,, or even just readme.txt that are used to identify a resource, usually on the Internet or a local computer. Certain characters are reserved within URIs, and if a reserved character is part of an identifier then it must be percent-encoded by replacing it with a percent sign followed by two hexadecimal digits representing the ASCII code of the character. A table of seven reserved characters and their encodings is shown below. Your job is to write a program that can percent-encode a string of characters.

Character Encoding
" " (space) %20
"!" (exclamation point) %21
"$" (dollar sign) %24
"%" (percent sign) %25
"(" (left parenthesis) %28
")" (right parenthesis) %29
"*" (asterisk) %2a

Input (from file input4.txt): The input consists of one or more strings, each 1–79 characters long and on a line by itself, followed by a line containing only "#" that signals the end of the input. The character "#" is used only as an end-of-input marker and will not appear anywhere else in the input. A string may contain spaces, but not at the beginning or end of the string, and there will never be two or more consecutive spaces.

Output (to file output4.txt):: For each input string, replace every occurrence of a reserved character in the table above by its percent-encoding, exactly as shown, and output the resulting string on a line by itself. Note that the percent-encoding for an asterisk is %2a (with a lowercase "a") rather than %2A (with an uppercase "A").

Example input: Example output:
Happy Joy Joy!
the 7% solution