CSC 533: Organization of Programming Languages
Spring 2005

Test 1 Review

Overview and History programming paradigms: imperative vs. declarative machine language--> assembly language--> high-level languages language translation: compiled vs. interpreted evaluation criteria: readability, writability, reliability, ... key languages: FORTRAN, LISP, ALGOL, C, C++, Java Syntax and Semantics syntax BNF (EBNF) grammar, derivation, parse tree, ambiguity building precedence & associativity into grammar rules parsing: top-down vs. bottom-up semantics operational, axiomatic, denotational Variables and Bindings variable attributes name: keyword vs. reserved word, naming conventions type: static (explicit or implicit) vs. dynamic binding type checking, coercion address: static vs. stack-dynamic vs. heap-dynamic (implicit or explicit) value: l-value vs. r-value scope & lifetime: static vs. dynamic scoping Data Types primitive data types integer, floating-point (decimal, fixed-point, rational, ...) boolean character pointer used for indirect addressing, dynamic memory management dangling reference, garbage reference heap management: can allocate/deallocate in arbitrary order fixed-size elements: allocate/deallocate from free list variable-size elements: fragmentation, compaction reclaiming storage: reference counts vs. garbage collection complex data types string enumeration subrange array/vector subscript types, subscript ranges, multi-dimensional, allocation (static vs. fixed stack-dynamic vs. stack-dynamic vs. heap-dynamic) record/struct field access, variant record/union Abstraction control structures counter- vs. logic-controlled loops, branching subprograms subprogram linkage parameter passing: by-value, by-result, by-value-result, by-reference, by-name overloading functions/operators, templates implementation: activation records, run-time stack, dynamic & static links data abstraction abstract data types: require encapsulation of data & operations + info hiding ADTS in Modula-2 vs. C++ vs. Java