CSC 533: Programming Languages
Spring 2017

Midterm Review

Thu, Mar 2
  • The test will include extra points (Mistakes Happen!), e.g., 103 or 104 points, but graded on a scale of 100.

Types of questions
  • factual knowledge: TRUE/FALSE, multiple choice
  • conceptual understanding: short answer, discussion
  • synthesis and application: explain/trace/modify code, simulate stack/heap management, ...
Study advice
  • review online lecture notes
  • review the text book (if not mentioned in class, won't be on test)
  • look over quizzes, homework assignments
  • reference other sources for examples, different perspectives
Course material Overview and History programming paradigms: imperative vs. declarative machine language--> assembly language--> high-level languages language translation: compiled vs. interpreted evaluation criteria: readability, writability, reliability, ... key languages: FORTRAN, LISP, ALGOL, C, C++, Java review of Java, object-oriented programming Syntax and Semantics syntax BNF (EBNF) grammar, derivation, parse tree, ambiguity building precedence & associativity into grammar rules semantics operational, axiomatic, denotational Variables and Bindings static vs. dyamic binding variable attributes name: keyword vs. reserved word, naming conventions type: static (explicit or implicit) vs. dynamic binding type checking, coercion address: static vs. stack-dynamic vs. heap-dynamic (implicit or explicit) value: l-value vs. r-value scope & lifetime: static vs. dynamic scoping Data Types primitive data types integer, floating-point (decimal, fixed-point, rational, ...) boolean, character pointer used for indirect addressing, dynamic memory management dangling reference, garbage reference heap management: can allocate/deallocate in arbitrary order allocate/deallocate from free list memory reclamation: reference counts, garbage collection Partition & Copy vs. Mark & Sweep & Compactify Data and Control complex data types string, enumeration, subrange array subscript types, subscript ranges, multi-dimensional allocation (static vs. fixed stack-dynamic vs. stack-dynamic vs. heap-dynamic) record/struct/class field access, accessibility, variant record/union assignments & expressions control structures counter- vs. logic-controlled loops branching Subprograms subprogram linkage (call & return sequences) parameters positional vs. keyword, default values in mode (by-value) vs. out mode (by-result) vs. inout mode (by-value-result, by-reference, by-name) implementing subprograms activation record, run-time stack static vs. dynamic links